• The basic Elements, Trace Element that make up Life

    The four elements carbon, hydrogen, oxide and nitrogen are the main elements that make up the cell. Essential trace elements ( trace mineral) play an important role in the growth and development of organisms.

  • Free Water vs Bound Water in living organism

    Organisms contain large amounts of water. Bound water increases, activity decreases and resistance increases. Free water increases, activity rises and resistance decreases.

  • Water Hydrogen Bond, the Unique Property of Water

    Why is water important to life? Hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules. It gives water high specific heat capacity, very strong surface tension, and ice is lighter than water.

  • The Minerals and their Functions in Organisms

    Minerals make up only 1-1.5% of the organism. They make up the cells, keep the osmotic pressure and pH stable, and promote enzyme activity.

  • Sugar (1): Structure, Funciton, Properties of Fructose, Glucose, Galactose

    Monosaccharides are the units that make up sugars. Common ones are: glucose, fructose and galactose. We introduce their structure and biological functions, physical and chemical properties.

  • Sugar (2): Structure, Function, Properties of disaccharide, Lactose, Sucrose, Maltose

    Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide molecules. We describe the physical, chemical, biological properties of three common disaccharides: sucrose, maltose and lactose. We also introduce their structure and bio functions. The dangers of consuming too much sucrose are also described.

  • Sugar (3): Starch, Difference between Amylose, Amylopectin

    Starch is a common polysaccharide found in plants. They are divided into amylopectin and amylose. We describe their structure, physical and chemical properties in detail.

  • Difference, Similarity of Liver Glycogen and Muscle Glycogen

    Synthesis and degradation of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen: small muscle glycogen (β particle) is mobilized fast, while large liver glycogen (α particle) for storing energy and stable blood sugar is mobilized slowly. We also cover the lactic acid cycle connecting these two glycogens.

  • Lipid (1): Fat, Oil, Triglyceride Structure and Function

    Fats or Triglyceride are classified into saturated and unsaturated fats. Fat has more carbon and hydrogen and stores more energy than sugar. It also keeps you warm, moderates shock and promotes the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Lipid (2): Trans Fat vs Cis Fat, where trans fats come from

    Differences in the structure of double bonds lead to cis fats and trans fats. Trans fats: Hydrogenation and refining of vegetable oils, frying and baking, food irradiation.

  • Lipid (3): Two Types of Trans Fatty acids: iTFAs and rTFAs

    There are two types of trans fatty acids: artificial or industrial trans fatty acid, and natural or ruminant trans fatty acid. The position of their double bonds is different. The natural trans fats don't damage health, but artificial trans fats hazard health: heart disease, diabetes, cognitive impairment and obesity.

  • Lipid (4): Phospholipid Physical, Chemical Properties, Function

    Phospholipids are common lipids divided into glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelin. We introduce their structure, physical, chemical properties, and biological functions. The hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail form the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane.

  • Lipid (5): Cholesterol, Sterol | Property, Structure, Bio function

    Structure, physical and chemical properties of cholesterol and sterols. They not only make cell membranes more stable, but also increase fluidity. Other functions are also introduced: hormones, vitamin D, antioxidant.

  • Lipid (6): Bio Natural Wax | Physical, Chemical Property, Bio Functions

    This article describes the physical, chemical properties, physiological functions, and applications of natural bio-waxes in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It ends with a description of several common biowaxes: beeswax, Brazilian carnauba wax and spermaceti.

  • Protein (1): Their 7 Functions in Living Organism

    Proteins are amino acids polymers make up about 50% organic content in lives. Proteins have unique conformation and perform a specific function: motion, structure, catalysis, signal recognition, defense, transportation, energy Source.

  • Protein (2): Amphoteric Amino Acids, Physical, Chemical Properties

    Structure, physical, chemical properties of proteinogenic amino acids: melting point, solubility, optical activity, amphoteric compound. They are classified into hydrophilic, hydrophobic, neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids based on the R group.

  • Protein (3): Peptide Bond Formation, Polypeptide, Bio Peptide

    Peptide bonds have partial properties of double bonds. Physical, chemical properties of polypeptide are determined by hydrophilic or hydrophobic R groups. They fold into complex structures. Oligopeptide promotes nutrient absorption. Some bio peptide resist bacteria.

  • Protein (4): 4 Levels (Orders) of Protein Structure

    Peptide bonds and disulfide bonds are covalent bonds that determine primary structure of proteins. Secondary structures include α-Helix, β-Sheet, β-Turn, β-Bulge and Random Coil. Tertiary and quaternary structures are maintained by salt bonds, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions.

  • Denaturation and Hydrolysis of Proteins

    The chemical bonds that maintain the three-dimensional structure of proteins are relatively weak. They will break in the presence of high temperatures, ions and organic solvents, thus changing the protein shape. Loss of protein structure results in loss of function.

  • Protein, Peptides, Amino Acids: Hydrolysis, Digestion, Absorption

    Proteins are broken down into polypeptides. The polypeptide is broken down into amino acids for absorption. The metabolism of amino acids produces some ammonia. The metabolism of amino acids produces some ammonia.

  • Which Nutrients Provide Energy to Your Body?

    The human body decomposes sugars, fats, and proteins to obtain energy. Sugar served as the main energy source, while fat is used to store energy. When there is a shortage of fat and sugar, protein serves as the body's energy source. They are broken down to produce energy in the following order: glucose, glycogen, fat and protein.